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返回国企员工持股,释放改革活力

浏览数:1412  发表时间:2016-10-14  [ ]

无论什么性质的企业,都必须把激励机制纳入现代企业管理制度的约束,以求企业的持续活力与壮大,区别仅仅在于国企员工持股需要平衡的目标更复杂

国有企业改革是全面深化改革的重要一环,其动向备受关注。日前,《关于国有控股混合所有制企业开展员工持股试点的意见》正式印发,既关涉国企效率和激励机制问题,又牵扯国有资产的保值增值问题,更成各方瞩目的焦点。

纵观中国30多年改革开放历史,任何一次对社会激励机制的成功调整,都会释放出强大的改革活力。然而,国企的效率问题从来不是孤立的,员工持股作为国企改革中最具挑战性和敏感性的难题之一,在实践中之所以几经反复,就是因为难以把握“激励员工”和“保全国有资产”之间的平衡。一旦处置不好,就会引发“国有资产流失”的担忧。

不过,随着国企改革的深入,效率与公平的问题已不存在谁绝对优先的简化选择,而需要并驾齐驱。效率低下的隐性贬值、显失公平的资产流失,都是必须避免的,只有能持续增强活力、不断壮大国有企业的改革,才是可行选项。

正因此,此次国企员工持股改革方案,不仅确立了积极稳妥推进的基调,还提出了激励与约束并重的改革目标,即“建立健全激励约束长效机制”。作为一份旨在增强国企活力的改革意见,此次员工持股试点可谓“严”字当头。比如,限定了试点范围为混合所有制国有企业,且主业必须是处于充分竞争行业和领域的商业类企业,央企二级以上企业和各省所属一级企业暂不开展;不仅把持股员工的范围圈定在直接影响企业的科研人员、经营管理人员和业务骨干上,还细化了股权内部流转和退出机制……这些限制,不是为了束缚国企改革的手脚,而是体现了公平、激励的改革思路。改革的活力,不能以牺牲国有资产为代价,否则,壮大国企的目标就成了一句空话。

从长远看,国企的活力,只能从完善现代企业制度和提升市场竞争力两个方面去努力。现代企业经营管理要处理两个核心关系,一是所有者与经营者之间的委托代理关系,二是经营管理层与员工之间的激励约束关系。凡是企业界的“常青树”,一般都能很好地处理这两层关系。从过往经验看,推行员工持股是非常有效的激励方式,它能实现企业和员工的利益共享和风险共担,从内心激发员工的主动性和创造性。然而,无论什么性质的企业,都必须把这一激励机制纳入现代企业管理制度的约束,以求企业的持续活力与壮大。

全面深化改革是一项系统工程,国企员工持股改革更是如此,正式试点是好的开始,但不可能一“持”就灵。员工持股旨在通过激发劳动力要素活力,以做强做大国有企业,但并非意味着国企要一味和民营企业比用人机制的灵活,关键要在增强对人才的综合吸引力上下功夫。开展员工持股试点,与国有企业功能分类、混合所有制改革等其他相关政策之间的衔接非常紧密,应统筹推进。全面增强国企活力,提供更好的干事创业舞台,让员工与企业全面共享改革发展成果,可能是更现实的方式。

国有企业肩负着国家的特殊责任,也承载着几代人的光荣与梦想。把人的积极性调动起来,也是为了维护好对国民经济至关重要的国有资产。从下好员工持股试点这盘棋出发,稳妥且积极地深入推进国企改革,才能做强做优做大国有企业。

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